The project aims at improving the approaches, teaching and learning methods towards students in primary, secondary and upper secondary schools of the four institutions. The project is coordinated by the service center of the city of Reykjavik. Each school has approached the project in unique manner in order to reach the common goals. The goals are to
- empower the school systems, motivate students and help them in getting better academic outcomes
- compare and define best practices related to teaching methods and organization of different educational systems
- develop new learning and teaching approaches in an open and innovative dialogue with students, using teaching methodologies suited for the new Millenium generation
- train teachers in using new methods, such as coaching and mentoring, to involve students and underline their own responsibility as learners
- use outcomes of pilot training and ”Student Voices” analysis to suggest changes to curricula and teaching/learning approaches
The project is both innovative in its approach of constructing an open dialogue and involvement of students and teachers. It focuses on working with available structures in developing educational systems.
Each participating institution puts emphasis on such processes that, in their opinion, are the most important. Munkkniemi school and Ingrind Jespersens Gymnasieskole concentrate their effort on mathematics and science education thus working in alliance with the governmental policies of Finland and Denmark. Icelandic partners will also look into natural science education but they will also include English and Icelandic and thus assess the feasibility of implementing a new regulation on Icelandic education system allowing for more flexibility and making graduation possible after nine years in primary / secondary education. Kvennaskólinn í Reykjavík focused on listening to students´ voices, mainly in chemistry, math, English and Icelandic. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to analyze the data and develop teaching methods.
The project offers a possibility to create a European network of teachers and students willing to participate in the democratic process of developing their educational system.
Kvennaskólinn i Reykjavik
Pilot teaching: New chemistry module autumn term 2018
To give students with sociology and humanities as major an opportunity to add to their knowledge in chemistry. Make a bridge between study lines. Enhance the interest in chemistry and natural science.
In the beginning there were 15 students, 12 of them finished the course. They were 17 – 18 years old, in their 2nd-3rd year of school. Mostly girls. They had studied one module in chemistry before.
The module counts for 5 units as is usual in Kvennaskólinn, that means work four hours/week for 16-17 weeks. Once a week we had a 2 hour lesson and twice per week a one hour lesson.
After listening to Lilja M Jónsdóttir´s (https://uni.hi.is/liljamj/) presentation at the project meeting in Reykjavík in May 2018 I decided to use Negotiating the Curriculum as the main method. Some say: Part of the power of implementing a negotiated curriculum is that it moves the learning space towards a democratic classroom, a place where students can advocate for themselves and their learning interests, goals and styles. The teacher negotiates with students regarding units of work and learning experiences. Programs offer students choice in forms of assessment, tasks, topics, subjects, units, coverage of knowledge and skills. Students’ suggestions are accepted and used in planning and their contributions are valued through verbal responses and classroom practices. Work units are modifiable by the teacher or learning support in response to individual needs.
In accordance with our findings in the first phases of the project, where we asked students what they thought was the best method, I also decided to use many approaches to learning. Along with group work, presentations and laboratories I also used old fashioned lectures.
Evaluation of progress was made by the teacher, individual students and in groups. Students made written assignments for each other, the teacher corrected and evaluated both the assignments content as well as the outcome (For more information see: Negotiating the Curriculum. Educating For The 21st Century By Garth Boomer, Cynthia Onore, Nancy Lester, Jonathan Cook)
I decided to keep a diary during the semester to see what worked well and what did not. I also thought it would give me the possibility to do an action research or practitioner research in the future to continue the work started in the project Students Voices on how this method can be applied to chemistry teaching.
Examples from the diary
Wednesday 22.8 2018
Discussions about the 2 hours classes. The students do not like staying so late (until 16.40) they would rather do homework. We will consider that in the planning.
Wednesday 29.8 2018
Group-work for the assignment The atomic theory. Students got the questions from Negotiating the curriculum. Three groups, 4 in each. I decided who worked together, split up classmates and friends. That seems to be good, everybody working, interested and taking part.
Monday 3.9 2018
Finished the atomic theorem assignment, all groups had done their presentation/teaching. I had put the assignment papers in word and handed out a new version, they liked it. We used model clay to make models of atoms of different elements, that was fun.
Wednesday 19.9 2018
Laboratory – four stations, groups working on mole. This was fun. Understanding was good and everyone was participating – no complaints about the time. Double-hour is nice for labs.
24. – 27. 9 2018
Two students work together on two different assignments.
1. Translation from English, texts about chosen subject from the book „50 ideas you really need to know about Chemistry“.
2. Traditional test – homework. Teacher will „correct“
Monday 1.10 2018
Complaining – not enough time and to difficult English. Adjustments have to be made. I will read and help them get together the translation – they will then present it. Assessment is hard the students agree on that.
Wednesday 3. 10 2018
Visit to research laboratory for drugs-toxic- and forensic research at the University of Iceland. http://rle.hi.is/ Two hours=useful.
Learning goals outcome:
All the learning goals where fulfilled. The teacher was preoccupied with covering the learning goals and started to „take over“ the lessons. Less discussions where allowed in order to have time to cover more subject.
Out of the 12 students that finished the module four took another chemistry-module simultaneously and 5 decided to take more chemistry after finishing this one. That is 9 out of 12 thought it was worthwhile to study more chemistry. That has to be a little victory for a chemistry teacher.
The students answered a short survey about the course and the methods used. Not all students answered but those who did agree 100% on that diversity in teaching methods was essential for the learning outcome. 83% were happy or very happy with the module and 67% of those who answered thought that they had learnt a lot.
Regarding the teaching methods students were asked to choose the most used methods from a list of many different teaching methods. All choose the following four; group-work, individual assignments, laboratory and a method we called carousel. 50% thought that „caroulesse“ was the best method and 33% wanted that method to be used more often. The least favorate method and the one which students voted to eliminate was traditional black-board lecture, 50% of students did not like that.
After having tried “Negotiating the Curriculum” which is a method best known to be used in social science I did go through the following list or description of the method to evaluate my own performance:
- The teacher negotiates with students regarding units of work and learning experiences.
I did my best and according to my diary many discussions were taken regarding timetable, tasks and evaluation of the work.
- Programs offer students choice in forms of assessment, tasks, topics, subjects, units, coverage of knowledge and skills.
This was the main focus on my behalf.
- Students’ suggestions are accepted and used in planning.
This I did as best I could, when time was running out I tended to “take over“ and start to teach “traditionally“, e.g. on the blackboard.
- Student contributions are valued through verbal responses and classroom practices.
I hope I did, it should have been one of the questions in the survey but it was not.
- Work units are modifiable by the teacher or learning support teacher in response to individual needs.
It was my intention to do so and I hope the students experienced that.
Links to reading material about teaching methods:
Description of the module in school curriculum:
Geometry classes. Iceland. Kvennaskólinn í Reykjavík.
For several years in our school for mathematic lessons GeoGebra is used. Since students were mentioning in recent survey that they want to be active participants in classroom I decided to share with you one of many of projects that our students worked on semester. I made videos where step by step the concept was explained in ggb files (software GeoGebra) without sound and students’ assignment was to add the voice for the concept explanation. Students’ reasoning was documented through sound recording, screen recording and then they had to share with their peers and teacher. Some of their tasks you will find here below.
Various students volunteered to make wallpapers with GeoGebra about geometrical rules and theorems with proofs.
Some of the pictures you can see below.
EFNA2AE05; General Chemistry
Course Description: This course is aimed at learners of the Humanities- and Social Science Lines who have successfully completed the basic chemistry course EFNA1FH03 and want to expand their understanding of chemistry or those who aim at further studies, which require more extensive knowledge of chemistry. The core concepts covered in this course are the following; mole calculation, the concept of the mole, Avogardos number; chemical equations and ratio; solutions, concentration and precipitation; electronic configuration; chemical bonds, ionic-, covalent-, metallic- and polarized bonds; chemical reactions, acids and bases; oxidation and reduction; organic chemistry, the basis of the organic nomenclature.
Science and technology studies in Munkkiniemi school
The idea to develop science and technology studies as our project has its origins in one of our foreign sister schools. STEM (Science Technology Engineering Mathematics) was originally developed in the USA and it combines natural sciences and mathematics. It has multidisciplinary and phenomena in core and it is in use in many schools all over the world.
We didn’t plan to adapt a ready made model, but wanted to develop a model of our own that would fit in our system and meet the needs we had. From the very beginning our aim was to create a programme which would offer the students in our mathematics classes more opportunities in studying chemistry, biology, physics and geography.
The work began in autumn term 2017. The phase which we call ”planning and implementation” had three units:
- Curriculum level; the teachers searched for multisubject contents in the existing curricula of chemistry, biology, physics and geography to create a curriculum for science and technology studies. Also, a change in lesson distribution for 8th and 9th grade mathematics classes was accepted in the school’s leading group and the new curriculum for science and technology studies was verified in May 2018.
- The school hired a teacher to enhance the project. A group of teachers then planned lessons and also methods to be used in science and technology studies. The group also created a task bank based on the new science and technology curriculum.
- The government of Munkkiniemi Education Foundation decided to build a new classroom. The actual building work was preceeded by functional planning based on the teachers’ work on curriculum. The actual building took place in spring and summer 2018. The last phase was to furnish the classroom and provide it with all equipment needed.
The lessons began in the beginning of autumn term 2018. Group 8a now had an extra lesson a week in biology and chemistry so they had four instead of three lessons a week. They were also simultaneously taught by two teachers: a teacher in chemistry and a teacher in biology. The theme for the 8th grade was ”the human being”. The contents were mainly from biology and chemistry. The task bank had 26 different tasks. Teachers modify the tasks and, at the same time, create new materials. Assessment of science and technology studies is included in the assessment of biology and chemistry in the 8th grade. Learning and effort are evaluated. The students write laboratory diaries and produce other material to be assessed. They have also visited Aalto university, had visiting lecturers and visites companies like Suunto and Sitowise.
The main focus of the project was to make use of tasks and methods that would put the student into a new kind of studying situation, awake his curiosity to learn more and help him find similarities in different dsiciplines. The tasks and methods accordingly were planned so that whatever the outcome of the task, the students would learn and see different connections of the phenomena in question. So the knowledge they would gain could be more widely implemented in wider connections later on in their studies and life in general. Throughout the academic year the students made notes in their laboratory diaries. During the academic year they had more than twenty different topics ranging from growing up bakteria, studying the respiratory system of a sheep and preparing a heart of a sheep to building a model of an arm and studying the work of muscles.
The feedback from the students varied a lot. Most of them found science a technology studies both interesting and difficult. Some said that the tasks were demanding but that they enjoyed carrying them out. Some students would have preferred knowing better about next week’s task beforehand.
Both the teachers said that the amount of preparatory work for each lessons was great. The case will be different in the future when they find out where the students need most help and guidance.
1. Getting started (IO1)
We had a strong picture of our aims already at the beginning. We wanted to develop studying of chemistry, biology, physics and geography so, that the core of the studies would lie in multidisciplinary and phenomena. In order to have firm ground under our feet, we had, already prior to this project, visited schools in many countries, e.g. Singapore, China and Croatia, to get ideas of how to bring such aspects to teaching.
When we looked into our own curriculum and practical arrangements of teaching, we soon realized that same kind of topics were being taught in different subjects without a connection to the phenomenon in question. Another conclusion was that 45-minute long lessons are very short for looking deeply at a phenomenon. This is why we decided that science and technology studies lessons should be double, i.e. 90 minutes.
2. Listening to Students’ Voices, methods and findings (IO2 and IO3)
As we had a special target group of students in our minds, the students in our Mathematics classes (7a, 8a and 9a) the teachers told the students about the project and asked them how they would develop the methods used in these lessons.
In these discussions, a certain tendency was immediately obvious: they want to be active in classes, they want more demanding tasks which would develop their natural science thinking. They wanted to try out different methods to find answers to questions and they wanted to have more practical tasks.
In spring term 2018 both groups 8a and 9a had so called “test science and technology lessons”. The teachers discussed the model lessons and could thus leave some ideas out and make more use of some of their ideas. They also discussed with the groups and so found out how the students had experienced these lessons. After this the developing continued.
Alongside with this phase we set a group of science teachers to develop the curriculum for science and technology studies. The aim was to find out similarities in the curricula of the four above mentioned subjects, point out multidisciplinary contents in them and use these similarities as a basis for science and technology studies curriculum. We also hired a temporary science teacher to enhance the project. Together they not only created the new curriculum but also developed a task bank for the teacher to be a tool in the lessons. The government of Munkkiniemi Education foundation decided to build a special classroom for this subject. Teachers and students together made plans for the classroom. It was provided with modern technology and special equipment for science studies.
Alongside with the curriculum work we also made changes in our lesson distribution. An extra lesson was added to both 8th and 9th grades to make double lessons (90 minutes) in science and technology studies possible. In the 8th grade, the extra lesson was added to biology and in the 9th grade to physics.
3. Applying the theory into practice (IO4)
Lessons in the new subject, in science and technology studies, began in August 2018. Class 8a now had a double lesson in science and technology studies a week. They were taught simultaneously by two teachers; one a biology and the other a chemistry teacher. It took a while before the students got used to the new arrangement but once they did, they liked it a said it was more efficient.
Even if there were plenty of material created the previous spring, it still took the teachers a lot of work to modify the planned tasks, to write instructions for each task and to see to that they had all the equipment that was needed. This took a lot more time than we had anticipated.
The results were good. Naturally the teachers noticed things that needed further developing. Students not only developed in studying as teams but they also got more independent and were responsibly taking part in both preparative work and afterwork. Some of them complained that they had a lot more work to do than their friends in “normal classes”.
A new group, 8a 19-20 started this year. This year two new teachers are in charge of grade 8 science and technology studies. And 8a 19-20 is now 9a 19-20. Their science and technology studies concentrates in the theme “from the origins into life”. It has contents from the national curricula of physics and biology.
As a side product a new optional subject called “technology in everyday life” was taken up in the 8th grade. In addition we a created and are testing a study module called “natural sciences” in the 1st year in upper secondary school. It has its origins in the structures of science and technology studies.
Ingrid Jespersens gymnasieskole
1. Getting started (IO1)
At Ingrid Jespersens Gymnasieskole our main aims in this project were inspiration & motivation in the classroom (students and teachers) along with good academic results. We wanted to concentrate our efforts on Maths and science, as there has been major changes in these subjects as a result of the national reform 2017. The students are, to a higher degree than earlier, expected to find information / knowledge / solutions themselves outside the classroom. We decided to make experiments with classes without grades & focused on project based learning / group work and had focus on the learning process and competences.
2. Best practices / Students’ voices (IO2 & 3):
Throughout the first year of secondary school one class was exempted of grades in the following
classes: mathematics, Danish, English, history and political science. This entailed that the students
weren’t given any grades for their hand-ins and tests during the year, but only formative feedback. At the end of the year grades were given.
The formative feedback was primarily built on two central elements in the form of feedback dialogues and precise presented learning goals. In every involved class (mathematics, English, history,…) the teacher has had individual dialogues with the students. During the spring the dialogues were held in groups in the classes, Danish, English and political science. Every student had a total of 9 dialogues evenly distributed throughout the year. This was to give the students continuous feedback in the form of dialogues. The students prepared for the dialogues by answering questions, which enabled the students to reflect upon their competences in regard to the teaching goals. The students made a note on some of the important elements of the dialogue. During the spring the teachers’ focus, during the dialogues, was partly on the follow-up of the previously noted important elements. On top of the formative feedback-dialogues every
student had at least two dialogues with one of their teachers. These dialogues were focused on how the students thrive both in and out of school.
The teaching goals has been a focus point throughout the year in an attempt to clarify them for
the students. This includes both oral and written work. The ways this has been implemented have been:
- To clearly define the frame for each activity
- Assignments were specified to underline the teaching goals at hand.
The methods by which this was implemented were for the teacher to decide in each class.
3. Pilot teaching / Students’ voices (IO4)
In Maths the focus has been on precise and clear teaching goals & formative feedback and assessment. The frame of each activity should be clearly defined, as well as the long-term goals. Formative feedback and assessment depend on these precise teaching goals. There has also been a focus on digital competences, e.g. coding and informatics. Important that the students ask questions and get a deeper understanding. The students have worked with both “traditional” math theory, but they also work with cases from the “real world”, fx coding, simulation and modelling, which they have found highly motivating. Also the students’ academic results have been satisfying.
All in all the students’ evaluation of the experiment has been positive. Some students experienced the lack of grades as being a benefactor that reduced their stress level and increase their focus on learning. Other students stated that the lack of grades was a demotivating factor. Many students still (due to a long tradition) have an expectation of receiving grades and miss the acknowledgement that their academic level match their level of ambition.
From a teacher’s point of view, the evaluation indicated that further work was required on clarifying the purpose on the assessment conversations and especially the outcome of the dialogue.
On top of this interesting and highly motivating project at our school, it has been a huge inspiration to follow life at the partner schools and collaborate with excellent colleges there.
One of many outcomes in the two years project Student voices is the World café in Landakotsskoli.
About the process and preparation Ombudsman for children, Reykjavik May 18 2018
Landakotsskoli in consultation with the Ombudsman for Children and UNICEF organized the World café, which was held at Landakotsskoli on May 15-17, 2018. The World café was held with the participation of students in grade 4-5 and grade 7-8.
Tuesday May 15, the Ombudsman for children in Iceland, together with young people from the advisory group of the Ombudsman, gave a talk about the advisory group and practical issues related to the meeting. Then, UNICEF’s representative went over the ways within the school that can be used to bring matters to the agenda and they are mapped out. This education was for students in grade 7 and 8.
Wednesday May 16, grade 4 and 5 were asked for suggestions on issues within the school that they would like to discuss on the. World café.
Thursday May 17, everyone was divided into groups and students in grade 7 and 8 took turns to be group leaders for each group. Teachers where note takers while grade 4 and 5 discussed the chosen questions.
World café is based on the idea of World café. Landakotsskoli will use the ideas and perspectives presented by the children in policy formulation on the issues that were discussed.
Landakotsskoli is the first school where this is done. It is hoped that more schools will take advantage of this way of giving children the opportunity to express their views on the issues they are concerned with. It is estimated that the World café will become a permanent part of the Landakotsskoli work.
This is screenshot of Ombudsman for children facebook site showing news about the World café in Landakotsskoli May 15 and 17 2018.
Main results and actions made from the World café in Landakotsskoli with 9-10 years old and 13-15 years old students:
Students requested changes in the school’s canteen, they did not like the food: A contract wasmade with a new company to take care of the school’s canteen.Students requested that the outdoor area would be made more exciting: The school and theparents collected money to make football pitches and playgrounds were improved.
World demographic was held for second time in Landakotsskoli at the Universal children’s day November 20, 2018
This time grade 8, 9 and 10, students from the International department and the Icelandic department took part, 45 students together with 10 teachers. The Ombudsman for children came to open the World café and took part for one hours this
Description of the preparation and implementation in details
World café Tuesday November 20 at 8:30-12:00 o´clock 2018 – Held on the Universal children’s day
|Why?||Convention on the Rights of the Child in Article 12 and 13 deals with the right of children to have their views expressed in all matters, they are concerned and that the rightful consideration is given to their views in accordance with their age and development.|
The World café is for the 8th, 9th and 10th Grade, C2 and D Group
Responsible for the preparation and implementation are these teachers: Anna Guðrún, Stefanía, Gabrielle, Jennifer, Ingibjörg, Helga Birna, Nína, Védís, Dagur, Helga S.
Teachers who participate in the World café need to be replaced in their usual teaching classes.
|Nov 11||Anna Guðrún the project leader and Ingibjörg the principle visits classrooms: “Invitations”: The World café is announced to be on November 20, on the Universal World Day with 8th, 9th and 10th grades, C2 and D groups.|
|Nov 12-15||Each teacher discusses with their class about the World café and sees to that everyone writes down questions for the World café:
Responsible for the job done:
These factors must be ready and clear on this day:
Anna Guðrún: 3 thematic questions on issues that burn on the students related to their school, as well as 5-10 questions under each theme, printed out.
Class teachers: Divide students into 4 discussion groups with 5+5+5+6 in each group. Contact Anna Guðrún on how many can be in the Icelandic speaking groups if numbers do not fit.
Class teachers: The combination of students must be considered within discussion groups. Teachers take care of mixing the groups.
Number of students: A total of 45, 38 Icelandic, 7 Int. Dept.
Teachers: Anna Guðrún, Stefanía, Nína, Helga Birna, Gabrielle, Jennifer, Ingibjörg, Védís, Dagur, Helga S.
What is needed for the meeting?
Computer for each group
Print out 9 copies of each of the three theme questionnaires to include on each table. Print out the Instructions for the discussion groups, guidelines for group leaders and note takers.
Print out and attach to each classroom door information on groups and guidelines for the carousel rounds.
Print out the questions to fill out at the end of the World café. The classrooms on Túngata side should be ready the day before. Water in cans, glasses and snack in each classroom.
Opening is in the hall, the Ombudsman for children will formally open the World café. Three classrooms are set up for the discussions, one table for each group and chairs. How many groups? A total of 10 groups. 6+6+6+6+6+6+6+6+6+7 in each group in addition, the secretary/writer.
The groups will talk in icelandic, besides two english speaking groups. Set up 7 or 8 chairs in round for each group
How many tables? Two tables and a computer for each group. How many at each table? 7-8.
How long: Three themes are discussed in 30 minutes x 3 = 90 minutes.
How: After 30 minutes each group move by one table and start discussion on new theme. The note taker main seated at same place the whole 90 minutes and listen to all groups discussing the same subject and take notes, he will inform the new group on main results from other groups.
Timekeeper: One person is chosen responsible in each classroom.
Opening, the Ombudsman for children.
The World café is formally opened in the hall.
A brief presentation of the purpose and objective of the meeting. 5 min. The arrangements for the meeting explained. 5 min.
Introduction of questions for discussion groups. 5 min. Group lists are presented.
Groups go to the World café and start the discussions.
|5 min. pause|
|The first discussion begins – 30-min.|
|The second discussion begins – 30 min.|
|5 min. pause|
|The third discussion begins – 30 min.|
|5 min. pause|
Brief reflection/Evaluations: An evaluation sheet from the school with five questions about the arrangement. 15 minutes.
Summary and discussion of the continuum.
The representative from the school tells everyone about what will be done as a result. 10 min.
Closing of the World café by the principle.
Introduction to the topics
From the school board, policy about homework.
Homework is mandatory in Landakotsskoli. It is a bridge between home and school as well as an important way for students to improve in their subjects, master time management and take responsibility for their own studies. At the youngest level, homework consists mostly of literacy training, but also writing and mathematics. The responsibilities and quantity of homework increases in higher grades and calls for independence and organization.
The question may not be whether homework should be, but how it is best arranged?
What do you want to learn in school?
What ideas do you have about the daily structure at the school?
- How should homework be organized?
- What should be the purpose of homework?
- How could we confer and cooperate more in homework planning?
- What is the best homework project you’ve ever heard about?
- Which definition of homework is better: “What school pupils do at home in relation to school” or “The term homework covers all learning outside traditional teaching and may partly take place in the school”
What do you want to learn in school?
- What ideas do you have about how Landakotsskoli could become even a better school with regard to the learning?
- What would you like to learn more about in the school?
- What kind of elective subjects should be offered in the school?
What ideas do you have about the daily structure at the school?
- What can be more of that could make conditions better for students?
- What we have and use daily can be used differently?
- How could you organize the indoor spaces in the school differently? Is there anything lacking that is very important?
Guidelines for group leaders
- Tells about his role and the rules of the discussion group.
- Is in control of the debate.
- Makes sure the discussions do not go beyond the topic.
- Makes sure everyone talks and no one talks over the others.
- An object goes around and stops with those who want to get the word.
- Everybody can be a group leader.
Guidelines for note taker
- Is at the same place all the time or 3×30 minutes.
- Starts with a brief introduction to the subject.
- Is “invisible” after that.
- When the time is over we have 5 min. brake and the group move to the next table.
- During the present, the note taker will review the issues and summarizes the main findings.
Instructions for the discussion groups
- A note taker is at the same table the whole time and introduces the theme.
- One group leader in the group, presenting its role.
- One theme is the subject for the group’s discussion for 30 minutes
- When the time is over we have 5 min. brake and the group move to the next table.
- A new theme is discussed.
Main Results from World café in Landakotsskoli with 13-15 years old students:
Too much capacity for homework and testing. Teachers were consulted.
- Tests and Assignments will be recorded with five days ‘ notice into Mentor.
- Registration of Homework: Homework will be registered in Mentor before 14:00.
- Lesson plans should go to Mentor.
- Printed calendar on the teacher’s table: Tests, assignments and events will be recorded on a printed calendar that is placed on a teacher’s desk in youth school rooms.
The facilities in breaks improved for students.
- The students room made more comfortable and checked with moving instruction from there up to the teacher’s conference room.
More art and craft.
- The establishment of more artistic education in the school. Students may be able to choose
from four different art subjects, two will be thought. This arises because students would like to
break up the day with art or craft.
- Discuss with students the issues brought in the World café concerning french-language
education in school.